French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1919
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841?CDecember 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau".
Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.
His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugene Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot. He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. As well, Renoir admired Edgar Degas' sense of movement. Another painter Renoir greatly admired was the 18th century master François Boucher.
A fine example of Renoir's early work, and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work, the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled, and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is still a 'student' piece, already Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tr??hot, then the artist's mistress and inspiration for a number of paintings.
In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (in the open air), he and his friend Claude Monet discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them. Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet, working side-by-side, depicted the same scenes (La Grenouill??re, 1869).
One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people, at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre, close to where he lived.
On the Terrace, oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of ChicagoThe works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light. By the mid 1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women, such as The Bathers, which was created during 1884-87. It was a trip to Italy in 1881, when he saw works by Raphael and other Renaissance masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path, and for the next several years he painted in a more severe style, in an attempt to return to classicism. This is sometimes called his "Ingres period", as he concentrated on his drawing and emphasized the outlines of figures.
After 1890, however, he changed direction again, returning to the use of thinly brushed color which dissolved outlines as in his earlier work. From this period onward he concentrated especially on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano, 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1918-19. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.
A prolific artist, he made several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently-reproduced works in the history of art.. Related Paintings of Pierre Renoir :. | Nymph by a Stream | The Mosque(Arab Holiday) | Lady in a Black Dress | The End of the Luncheon | Two Young Girls at the Piano |
Related Artists:hedvig eleonoras
Hedvig Eleonora av Holstein-Gottorp, född 23 oktober 1636, död 24 november 1715, var svensk drottning och riksföreståndare, dotter till Fredrik III av Holstein-Gottorp och Marie Elisabeth av Sachsen och gift i november 1654 med Karl X Gustav. Hon var med honom i Polen 1656 och i Danmark 1658. Hon var Sveriges drottning i sex år, men de facto "första dam" till sin död 1715, i femtiofem års tid.
Hon blev änka 1660 och levde som änkedrottning i ytterligare 55 år. Kung Karl II av England friade till henne något år efter makens död, men hon tackade nej, med den formella motiveringen att hon önskade vara sin döde make evigt trogen.
Hon satt i förmyndarregeringarna för både sin son Karl XI och sin sonson Karl XII, 1660-1672 samt 1697, och sedan i rådet 1700-1713, men hade i verkligheten aldrig så mycket att göra med politik, utan var nöjd med att formellt presidera över regeringen och hovet som monarkins symboliska överhuvud och representant. Hon stödde dock den profranska och antidanska policy som fördes av regenterna. Hennes son var djupt beroende av henne i hela sitt liv; då han blev gammal nog att sitta med vid regeringens sammanträden, talade han inte direkt till ledamöterna, han viskade i stället vad han ville veta till riksänkedrottningen, och Hedvig Eleonora frågade sedan regeringen med hög röst vad han ville veta.
Då sorgeperioden formellt bröts år 1663 var hon värdinna för omfattande festligheter, och det var i hennes namn Sveriges första fasta teater öppnades i Stora Bollhuset och Lejonkulan 1667.
Hedvig Eleonora, "Riksänkedrottningen", hade en dominant och temperamentsfull personlighet och dominerade det svenska hovet totalt fram till sin död. Även efter sin sons giftermål 1680 och fram till sin död 1715 var hon den verkliga drottningen och behöll sin position som "första dam"; sonen kallade henne "drottningen" och sin fru för "min fru". Under stora nordiska kriget var hon 1700-13 representant för kungen, men intresserade sig inte heller nu mycket för politik- vid audienser för utländska sändebud kunde antingen "moltiga" eller gapskratta åt dem. Hon intresserade sig för kortspel och arkitektur. Hon kunde spela kort till inpå småtimmarna. Drottningholms slott samt Strömsholms slott påbörjades av henne. Vid båda slotten lät hon anlägga stora parker i tidens stil.Edwin Deakin
1861-1944 Banyuls-sur-Mer,was a French Catalan sculptor and painter. Maillol was born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, Roussillon. He decided at an early age to become a painter, and moved to Paris in 1881 to study art. After several applications, his enrollment in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts was accepted in 1885, and he studied there under Jean-Leon Gerome and Alexandre Cabanel. His early paintings show the influence of his contemporaries Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Gauguin. Gauguin encouraged his growing interest in decorative art, an interest that led Maillol to take up tapestry design. In 1893 Maillol opened a tapestry workshop in Banyuls, producing works whose high technical and esthetic quality gained him recognition for renewing this art form in France. He began making small terra cotta sculptures in 1895, and within a few years his concentration on sculpture led to the abandonment of his work in tapestry. The subject of nearly all of Maillol's mature work is the naked female body, treated with a classical emphasis on stable forms. The figurative style of his large bronzes is perceived as an important precursor to the greater simplifications of Henry Moore and Alberto Giacometti, and his serene classicism set a standard for European (and American) figure sculpture until the end of World War II. His important public commissions include a 1912 commission for a monument to Cezanne, as well as numerous war memorials commissioned after World War I. He died in Banyuls at the age of eighty-three, in an automobile accident.